SALVADOR, JOSEPH

SALVADOR, JOSEPH (1796–1873), French scholar. Salvador, the descendant of Spanish Jews, was born in Montpellier. He studied medicine there and graduated at the age of 20. His thesis dealt with the "Application of Physiology to Pathology" (1816). Shortly afterward he settled in Paris, where he became known mainly for his scholarly interest in the history of religions. To the study of religion in general and Jesus in particular, he applied the methods of historical criticism and might thus be considered in some respects in advance of German scholarship. His Jésus-Christ et sa doctrine (1838) was violently criticized by the Gazette de France when it was published, but was favorably reviewed by A.I.S. de Sacy in the Journal des Débats of the same year and by J.E. Renan in his Études d'histoire réligieuse (1857). In Paris, Rome, Jérusalem, ou la Question réligieuse au 19e Siècle (1859), Salvador attempted to outline a universal creed, founded on a kind of reformed Judaism, or on the fusion of Judaism and Christianity into one single doctrine of progress. Salvador imagined that the center of the syncretistic religion of which he dreamed would be in Jerusalem, and he saw this ultimate faith as the lineal outgrowth of what he imagined classic Judaism to have been. This emphasis on Jerusalem has led a number of historians of Zionism, beginning with Nahum Sokolow, to regard Salvador as one of the precursors of Zionism, but the Jerusalem of his dreams was a "heavenly Jerusalem," and the society of which it was to be the center was a universal culture and not that of a restored Jewish people. In his search for a general religious synthesis, Salvador might also have been motivated by the urge to solve his own spiritual dilemma, as his mother was a Catholic. Moreover, Salvador's outlook comes close to that of the Saint-Simonians; Benjamin Olinde Rodrigues, one of Saint-Simon's foremost Jewish disciples, seems to have been influenced by Salvador's writings (see saint simonism ). He also wrote La Loi de Moïse, ou, Système réligieux et politique des Hébreux (1822); De quelques faits relatifs au système historique des Evangiles (1839); and Histoire de la domination romaine en Judée et de la ruine de Jérusalem (1846). The Catholic Church put two of Salvador's works, Jésus-Christ et sa doctrine and Paris, Rome, Jérusalem…, on its official index of forbidden books. -BIBLIOGRAPHY: G. Salvador, J. Salvador; sa vie, ses oeuvres et ses critiques (1881); H. Reinhold, in: Zion, 9 (1944), 109–41. SALVENDI, ADOLF SALVENDI, ADOLF (1837–1914), rabbi, early adherent of Ḥovevei Zion, and organizer of charitable projects. Born in Waag-Neustadt, Slovakia, Salvendi officiated as a rabbi in Berent, Prussia (from 1864), and from 1865 acted as the district rabbi of more than 30 communities in Frankenthal, Bavaria, while living in Duerkheim. He continued in this capacity until 1910, when he went to live with his daughter in Karlsruhe. He resisted the influence of the extreme Reform movement (whose leaders persecuted him throughout his life) in the communities under his control and did much to further traditional religious education. At the same time Salvendi became well known as an organizer of relief projects for needy Jews. At first he collected money for the Jews of Russia, Persia, and other countries, and from 1877 for Ereẓ Israel. He published the names of donors and the sums collected in special lists, adding information about events in Ereẓ Israel, especially in the new settlements. Over 1,100 such lists were published over a period of 30 years, and this contributed substantially to the strengthening of Ḥibbat Zion in Western Europe, especially in Germany. The articles accompanying the lists were also of outstanding value as informative and propaganda material for Ḥibbat Zion. As a result of these activities, Salvendi was made an honorary member of the central committee of Ḥovevei Zion at the kattowitz conference . -BIBLIOGRAPHY: A.B. Posner, in: A. Elmaleḥ (ed.), Ḥemdat Yisrael (1946), 136–46. (Getzel Kressel)

Encyclopedia Judaica. 1971.

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  • Salvador, Joseph — (1797 1873)    French historian. He was born in Montpellier. He initially studied medicine, but after settling in Paris he began to work on the history of religions. In Paris, Rome, Jerusalem, ou la question religieuse au 19e siecle he propounded …   Dictionary of Jewish Biography

  • Salvador Dali — Salvador Dalí im Jahr 1965 mit seinem zahmen Ozelot, den er als Haustier hielt. Der legendäre gezwirbelte Schnurrbart war Diego Velásquez abgeschaut. Foto von Roger Higgins Salvador Felipe Jacinto Dalí i Domènech, Marqués de Púbol (* 11. Mai 1904 …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Salvador Dalí — im Jahr 1965 mit seinem zahmen Ozelot, den er als Haustier hielt. Der legendäre gezwirbelte Schnurrbart war vermutlich Diego Velásquez abgeschaut.[1] Foto von Roger Higgins Salvador Felipe Jacinto Dalí i Domènech, Marqués de Púbol (* 11. Mai …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Salvador Felipe Jacinto Dalí — Salvador Dalí im Jahr 1965 mit seinem zahmen Ozelot, den er als Haustier hielt. Der legendäre gezwirbelte Schnurrbart war Diego Velásquez abgeschaut. Foto von Roger Higgins Salvador Felipe Jacinto Dalí i Domènech, Marqués de Púbol (* 11. Mai 1904 …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Salvador Laurel — Salvador H. Laurel 10th Vice President of the Philippines In office February 25, 1986 – June 30, 1992 President Corazon Aquino …   Wikipedia

  • Salvador Dalí — photographié par Carl van Vechten, le 29 novembre 1939 …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Salvador Dalí — Saltar a navegación, búsqueda Salvador Dalí Salvador Dalí en 1939. Fotografía de Carl Van Vechten. Nombre real Salvador Felipe Jacinto Dalí i Domènech Nacimiento …   Wikipedia Español

  • SALVADOR — SALVADOR, Sephardi London family that settled in colonial America. JOSEPH (1716–1786) was a wealthy London merchant who immigrated to America. Known in the Sephardi community of London as Joseph Jessurun Rodrigues, he was born into a wealthy… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • Salvador Dali — Salvador Dalí Salvador Dalí Salvador Dalí photographié par Carl van Vechten, le 29 novembre 1939 …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Salvador Domingo Felipe Jacinto Dalí Domènech — Salvador Dalí Salvador Dalí Salvador Dalí photographié par Carl van Vechten, le 29 novembre 1939 …   Wikipédia en Français

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